PSY 322

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Must be APA  Newest 7th edition

Due Tuesday 06/28/2022

Psychosocial Development

Psychosocial Development Theory

Latoya Battiste
California Baptist University
PSY322
05/21/2022

Bruce Wayne is a mythical figure from the DC comics who has appeared in films and television. Bruce Wayne adopts the pseudonym Batman to conceal his actual self in the metropolitan area of Gotham. Bruce Wayne is thirty years old, but the comics begin when he is around twelve years old. Bruce witnesses his parents’ brutal murder at such a young age, which kicks off the Gotham series. Bruce Wayne is a multi-millionaire and industrial tycoon who runs his parents’ company and lives with Alfred the butler, his only guardian. One of Bruce Wayne’s most notable characteristics is his ability to avoid and respect murder. Despite witnessing his parents’ deaths, Bruce Wayne, alias Batman, values human life. After the death of his parents, Bruce is inspired to fight crime in his city, but the people do not know his real identity. Bruce undergoes various transformations in his life as a vigilante and his authentic self.
One of the psychosocial developmental stages in Erickson’s theory is the industrious versus inferiority stage. The fourth stage occurs from age five to eleven when children start to develop a sense of pride in their achievements. Children learn good work and study habits at home and school (Schultz & Schultz, 2017, p.166). Children who are inspired and praised by their parents and educators develop a sense of competence and confidence in their abilities. Conversely, those who obtain little or no motivation from their parental figures, teachers, or peers will doubt their ability to succeed. At this age, the alternative outcome is the progression of a feeling of insecurity or a child who lacks intelligence in their qualities. Parents can help their children succeed at this developmental stage by increasing their expectations of them as they grow in cognitive and behavioral ability.
The loss of Bruce Wayne’s parents was essential in disrupting the evolution of the sense of self as a competent and able individual. Children who grow up without parents have significant risks of withdrawal from normal activities and development of inferiority. Bruce Wayne had to go through an inferiority complex stage after his parents’ death as he experienced depression and conduct disorder. Bruce goes through the four-step model of grief, where he first has to accept reality. Next, Bruce spends some time finding the murderer of his parents. The next step to push through is emotional pain, followed by adjusting to a life without them, and the last step is to convert the moments with the deceased individuals into memories. Finally, however, Bruce passes through the grief and inferiority process with the help of Alfred Pennyworth, who helps instill industrious nature.
The other stage is the identity vs. confusion stage during the teenage years. It is essential to develop an individual’s personality that will influence their behavior and development for the rest of their lives. The stage occurs between 12 and 18 when individuals must resolve their ego identity (Erikson, 1968, p. 271). Ego identity develops through social interaction, which changes because of new experiences and information. The outcome of passing through this stage is coming out with a sense of self-identity and the ability to face adulthood with confidence. On the other hand, people who come out of this phase unsure about their beliefs and desires will remain confused for the rest of their lives (Pendergraft, 2017, 286). The latter experience an identity crisis as they do not know who or what they are, where they should go or belong.
Bruce Wayne discovered his identity and developed his ego identity at this stage. As a young adult, Bruce went to college for a short time and occasionally returned to Gotham to visit his butler. During the short time, Bruce spent time in prison while training with the League of Shadows, whose leader Ra’s al Ghul turned him into a warrior. During his prison time, Bruce spends time with criminals and gains skills that he uses in his alter identity, Batman. Bruce also discovers that his main goal and plan are to fight injustice and help the people of Gotham. Although he witnessed the death of his parents, Bruce Wayne does not become violent or a murderer but chooses to stop crime and help the people. Bruce develops fidelity which involves genuineness, sincerity, and duty in his relationship with Alfred.
Bruce Wayne is a mythical figure who appears in many action hero films and television shows, including Batman, Justice League, and Gotham. After his parents’ deaths, Bruce’s life provides a critical turn, forcing him to become a vigilante. Erickson’s psychosocial theory has eight developmental stages that human beings go through to old age. Bruce Wayne, an alias Batman, demonstrates two steps from the idea: identity vs. confusion and industrious versus inferiority stages. First, Bruce Wayne recognizes his identity as Batman, a vigilante whose aim is to help the people of Gotham City, which creates his ego identity. The industrious stage occurs 11 years after his parent’s death, and Alfred allows him to turn into an industrious person.

Reference
Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.
Pendergraft, R. (2017). Erik Erikson and the Church: Corporate worship that sustains through crises. Philosophy Study, 7(6).

https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5313/2017.06.001

Schultz, D. P., & Schultz, S. E. (2017). Theories of personality. Cengage Learning.

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DEVELOPMENT OF PERSONALITIES

Psychosocial Development of Personalities

Latoya Battiste

California Baptist University

06/19/2022

Psychosocial Development of Personalities

Bruce Wayne is a mythical figure from the DC comics who has appeared in films and television. Bruce Wayne adopts the pseudonym Batman to conceal his actual self in the metropolitan area of Gotham. Bruce Wayne is thirty years old, but the comics begin when he is around twelve years old. Bruce witnesses his parents’ brutal murder at such a young age, which kicks off the Gotham series. Bruce Wayne is a multi-millionaire and industrial tycoon who runs his parents’ company and lives with Alfred the butler, his only guardian. One of Bruce Wayne’s most notable characteristics is his ability to avoid and respect murder. Despite witnessing his parents’ deaths, Bruce Wayne, alias Batman, values human life. After the death of his parents, Bruce is inspired to fight crime in his city, but the people do not know his real identity. Bruce undergoes various transformations in his life as a vigilante and his authentic self.
George Kelly’s view of cognitive development is that people develop their traits due to their unique interpretations of their environment (Kuška et al., 2016). He refuted the claims that the personality construct is influenced by the environment. According to him, it was vice versa. He developed eleven corollaries that explained the varied personality constructs. The construction corollary explained why people reacted to repeated events similarly. He argued that often similar events elicit similar emotions or reactions, but this entirely depends on our mood and understanding at the time. The individuality corollary suggested that different people have unique perceptions of similar situations. The organization corollary explained how people may hold unique perspectives on similar situations based on their hierarchy of significance of constructs. The value that we accord various constructs often leads to differences in the interpretation of circumstances. The dichotomy corollary argued that constructs are bipolar in nature. Therefore, to be able to discern why a certain attribute is positive and not negative means one must understand both aspects. The choice corollary provided that everyone is presented with an equal opportunity to choose. The choice that one makes is dependent on their personal interests; on what constitutes a safe and appropriate option; often based on their past experience. The range corollary imbued that, there is usually a specified limit within which certain constructs can fit. The experience corollary highlighted the desire for a new experience. Some people would rather stick to their long-held perspectives as they consider them safe and would not want to gamble with new experiences. However, experience is dynamic, and trying new experiences may lead to an adjustment of long-held constructs (Anna Paszkowska-Rogacz & Zofia Kabzińska, 2012). The modulation corollary suggested that constructs often differ in their reception of new ideas. Some could be rigid while others could be receptive to new ideas. The fragmentation corollary argues that there is usually our broader perspective of events, and then there are subordinate perspectives. Inconsistencies in the subordinate constructs may not necessarily affect the broader construct. The commonality corollary imbued that people might construe events in a similar manner due to similarities in culture. The sociality corollary argued that people must understand one another’s perceptions to be able to properly anticipate events due to the normal interdependence among people.
The experience corollary by George Kelly imbued that our interactions with the past often affect our choice of constructs to a greater degree. People tend to feel secure engaging in familiar reactions to events due to the fear of adventure. Doing similar things similarly however results in stagnation, as we realize similar results (Anna Paszkowska-Rogacz & Zofia Kabzińska, 2012). If we adopt new ways of doing things often and adjust our constructs accordingly, we are likely to improve our experience and perceive things in a much better way. New experiences can also completely change our long-held constructs due to experiences that are contrary to our anticipated fears.
In the Gotham Series, Bruce Wayne was exposed to murder at a young age. His childhood experiences and thoughts revolved around the injustice meted out against his parents. His understanding of the significance of being just and humane was dwarfed. However, through the teachings he received from Alfred and the understanding of the criminal situation in his neighborhood, he sought to be different. He capitalized on his prison teachings to do good and transform his neighborhood. He dared to respond differently to situations in his past, and the experience was pleasurable and fulfilling – being an objective for transformation in society.
The dichotomy corollary as per George Kelly implies that there are always two mutually exclusive alternatives to constructs. It means that if we are to perceive good, then we must discern what qualifies us to be bad. This bipolar relationship enables people to group events accordingly depending on the various constructs. Therefore, one should understand the aspect of a bipolar relationship for constructs to be able to judge situations correctly.
Bruce Wayne evidently understands the bipolar aspect of constructs. He was able to differentiate a just from an unjust system as pertains to the interactions in society. His past trauma did not get the better of him so that he can seek vengeance on his parents’ killers. He appreciated the fact that one can not only use his abilities to do wrong but can also use them to entrench the right things and be famous. Therefore, he learned from his mentor, Alfred, and the criminal justice system in prison and decide to use his knowledge to rid society of the grave issue of drug trafficking and crime.
Therefore, from the postulations of George Kelly, everyone has a unique perspective on situations in life. Our choices of constructs are normally shaped by what we anticipate from the surrounding environment and not vice versa.

References

Anna Paszkowska-Rogacz, & Zofia Kabzińska. (2012). Applications of Kelly’s Personal Construct Theory to Vocational Guidance. Journal of Psychology Research, 2(7). https://doi.org/10.17265/2159-5542/2012.07.003
Kuška, M., Trnka, R., Kuběna, A. A., & Růžička, J. (2016). Free Associations Mirroring Self- and World-Related Concepts: Implications for Personal Construct Theory, Psycholinguistics and Philosophical Psychology. Frontiers in Psychology, 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00981
Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. E. (2016). Theories of personality (11th ed.).
CENGAGE Learning Custom Publishing.