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****TOPIC***
 Sex Workers Psychologically as a Normal Human Being.”
REFERENCES 1
References 2

References

Tanya Williams
June 19, 2022

Cecilia Benoit, C. B. (2017, November 17). Prostitution Stigma and Its Effect on the Working Conditions, Personal Lives, and Health of Sex Workers. The Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved June 17, 2022, from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ref/10.1080/00224499.2017.1393652?scroll=top
Cecilia Benoit, C. B. (2017) in their study suggested the depiction of sex workers with affecting lifestyle that is hard to perceive and modify. This profession intensifies the conduct and performance of their routine in the outside environment. The psychological aspects and routine perspectives have affected sex workers working conditions and daily life.

Research design

It is an empirical phenomenological study that depicts the change in psychology and social stigma of sex workers pretending to act like a normal human beings. There are three groups of people in this profession to localize how they react to public opinion and their actions towards change in community perception.
This article is being reviewed to certain assessment criteria in America and other countries to contrast the study limits in their working. Psychologically they are all optimized normal human beings after all but developing a stigma in society some people don’t bother to be judged.

Key findings

The assessment has brought many changes to the psychology of sex workers. It gives them the leverage to occupy the social space with their image in society.
The other key finding is that being in the life of a sex worker to sustain their needs might be less possible affecting their behavior. In each circumstance, they have developed the apprehension of getting bad remarks.
This article represents sex workers’ limitations in giving out their work in public. They have to represent themselves as part of regular work with no intention to cause harm to others.

Quotation

We then examined the sources of prostitution stigma at macro and micro levels.
This article defines the perception of sex workers into categorized reality and differentiates them from other levels.

Keywords

Sex workers, Behavior , Well-being, Prostitution, Whore, Social inequality, Stigma

References

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97. AIDSFONDS Project. Sex work & violence in Southern Africa: A participatory research in Botswana, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe 2018. http://www.sweat.org.za/wpcontent/uploads/2019/09/Sex-work-and-violence-inSouthern-Africa-participatory-research-1-1.pdf
98. Coetzee, J., Buckley, J., Otwombe, K., Milovanovic, M., Gray, G. E., & Jewkes, R. (2018). Depression and Post Traumatic Stress amongst female sex workers in Soweto, South Africa: A cross sectional, respondent driven sample. PloS one, 13(7), e0196759. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0196759.

99. V Poliah & S Paruk (2017) Depression, anxiety symptoms and substance use amongst sex workers attending a non-governmental organisation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, South African Family Practice, 59:3, 116 122, DOI: 10.1080/20786190.2016.1272247

100.Davey, C., Cowan, F., & Hargreaves, J. (2018). The effect of mobility on HIV-related healthcare access and use for female sex workers: A systematic review. Social science & medicine (1982), 211, 261–273. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.017

Article Review Template #1

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #2

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #3

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #4

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #5

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

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Article Review Template #6

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

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Article Review Template #7

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #8

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #9

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Template #10

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Article Review Assignment Instructions

Overview

This assignment is designed to aid you in your navigation of scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles that may inform your dissertation. You will complete this assignment a total of four times (Modules 1, 3, 5, and 7). The instructions and procedure are the same for all four instances of this assignment.

Instructions

Each time you complete this assignment, you will select 10 scholarly, peer-reviewed research articles that you anticipate will be significant to your dissertation. You will then complete the Article Review Template document, which includes questions for all 10 articles you selected. Submit the 10 completed templates for each Article Review Assignment submission (Note: a single Word document is to be submitted with all 10 article reviews). Be sure to review research articles relevant to your dissertation.

Note: For each instance of this assignment, you may include the 10 articles you select to review as part of the Preliminary Dissertation References Assignment in Module 6: Week 6.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

ARTICLE REVIEW #3 2

Article Review #3 2

Article Reviews on Sex Workers’ Psychology as a Normal Human Being #3

Tanya Williams
June 12, 2022

Article Review 1

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Rethinking the relationship between sex work, mental health and stigma: a qualitative study of sex workers in Australia Treloar C., Stardust Z., Cama E., Kim J. (2021) Social Science and Medicine, 268 , art. no. 113468

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Sex workers might encounter disgrace associated with their profession and the psychological concerns that they deal with.
3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Increased training and development for mental health specialists, financial support for services to better internalize stigma, programs that reduce stigma and underlying defenses from sex work stigma.

Article Review Template #2

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Reynish, T., Hoang, H., Bridgman, H. et al. Barriers and Enablers to Sex Workers’ Uptake of Mental Healthcare: a Systematic Literature Review. Sex Res Soc Policy 18, 184–201 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-020-00448-8

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The goal of this research is to produce proof on the difficulties of psychological healthcare for sex workers and the circumstances that assist in the understanding.
3 Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Future investigation on different methods to the psychological health of sex workers may encourage a wide- range of services and procedures that may enhance a sex workers’ overall value of life.
.

Article Review Template #3

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Puri, N., Shannon, K., Nguyen, P., & Goldenberg, S. (2017). Burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among sex workers in an urban setting. BMC Women’s Health, 17(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-017-0491-y
2. What is the research problem being investigated?

There is a lack of research documenting women’s mental health who engage in sex work. Therefore, the authors decided to investigate the prevalence of mental health diagnoses among this demographic in Vancouver, Canada, and the factors associated with such diagnoses.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Between January 2010 and February 2013, 692 people who worked in the sex industry were enrolled in the program. Of those 692 people, 338 (48.8 percent) reported being diagnosed with a mental health disorder. The two most prevalent diagnoses were depression (35.1 percent) and anxiety (19.9 percent ). According to a multivariate study, women who have been diagnosed with mental health conditions have a greater likelihood of identifying as a sexual or gender minority. This study shows the unequal mental health burden encountered by women who engage in the sex industry. In particular, it is among those who identify as a sexual or gender minority, those who use narcotics, and those who operate in informal interior settings and street and public areas. Additional research has to be done on evidence-based treatments personalized to sex workers that address the interconnections between traumatic experiences and mental health. This research should be done with policies that promote access to safer workplaces and health services.

Article Review Template #4

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Yuen, W., Wong, W., Holroyd, E., & Tang, C. (2014). Resilience in Work-Related Stress Among Female Sex Workers in Hong Kong. Qualitative Health Research, 24(9), 1232-1241. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314544968

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The research on positive psychology and endurance reveals that people use their personal qualities and the resources provided by their environments to support positive adaptation. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the frameworks mentioned above functioned as self-protective techniques for female sex workers, allowing them to maintain their mental and physical well-being despite stressful sociocultural and employment situations.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The informants expressed unpleasant emotions in reaction to financial hardship, customer expectations, physical health hazards, and stigma. Some female sex workers demonstrated resilience by rationalizing their job, believing in their abilities to make a change in their lives, and being hopeful. They learned coping methods like emotional control and acceptance of their duty and boundaries to deal with traumatic life situations. The findings contribute to our understanding of the function of positive psychology and adaptability in this vulnerable group.

Article Review Template #5

1. PA reference of article being reviewed

Gunn, J.K.L., Roth, A.M., Center, K.E. et al. The Unanticipated Benefits of Behavioral Assessments and Interviews on Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Depression Among Women Engaging in Transactional Sex. Community Ment Health J 52, 1064–1069 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-015-9844-x

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex worker’s that participate in transactional sex due to them having unbalanced psychological health illnesses and are confronted with significant obstacles to gaining the necessary tools to get the help that they require. 

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The study evaluated qualitative data from a total of 38 FSWs as well as 16 gatekeepers. The researchers investigated various sources of stress concerning commercial sexual activity in China. It was discovered that female sex workers (FSW) were exposed to a continuum of sources of stress. Poverty limited economic opportunities, a lack of social safety, and violence conducted by clients. They also suffered from a lack of social support from peers and stable relationships, contributing to the stresses experienced. To meet the requirements of FSW and promote their psychological well-being, the researchers advocate for the enablement of FSW and a systematic approach.

Article Review Template #6

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Poliah, V., & Paruk, S. (2017). Depression, anxiety symptoms, and substance use amongst sex workers attending a non-governmental organization in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Family Practice, 59(3), 116-122. https://doi.org/10.1080/20786190.2016.1272247

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

This paper aimed to investigate whether or not sex workers have a high rate of clinical depression, anxiety, and drug abuse.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The poll included responses from 155 individuals in total. On the other hand, the prevalence of anxious and depressed symptoms was 78.4 percent and 80.9 percent, respectively, on the total scores of the SRQ 20 and PHQ 9. In the year leading up to the survey, over forty percent of those who worked in the sex industry reported having suicidal thoughts. It was stated that there were high rates of violence (n = 112, 72 percent) and mistreatment of children (n = 107, 69 percent). The high prevalence of anxiety, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, drug use, and co-morbid HIV infection that was reported by sex workers, as well as the significant treatment gap, suggests that there is an imperative must provide an interconnected healthcare system that addresses both the physical and mental health of sex workers.

Article Review Template #7

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Ernst, F., Romanczuk-Seiferth, N., Köhler, S., Amelung, T., & Betzler, F. (2021). Students in the Sex Industry: Motivations, Feelings, Risks, and Judgments. Frontiers In Psychology, 12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.586235

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Student sex labor is a contemporary phenomenon occurring all over the globe. The media has been reporting on it increasing over the last several years. On the other hand, research on student sex work in Germany is still limited. Besides, there are no firsthand testimonies from students who have participated in the practice. As a result, this research aims to investigate the perspectives and experiences of students who are now employed in the adult entertainment sector.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

According to most student sex workers, the primary motivation for entering the sex business was money (35.7 percent). The majority of respondents said they offered services that included direct sexual interaction. It was found that those who disclosed their occupation to their friends, family, or other people had fewer issues with social isolation and in their love relationships. Students who did not work in the sex business said that they had never heard of other students working in the sex industry at 22.9 percent overall. Compassion and bewilderment were the feelings brought up by respondents, the most often concerning student sex workers (48.9 percent). There was no discernible difference in levels of enjoyment between students who worked in the sex industry and those who did not. As a result of this study, it has become abundantly clear that the students’ sentiments and the challenges they are required to overcome are comparable to one another. In addition, stereotypes and misconceptions regarding the lives of student sex workers are still widely held. People who engage in student sex work might benefit from a greater awareness of the practice. It would allow them to live their lives with less shame and access the assistance of others more easily.

Article Review Template #8

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Beattie, T., Smilenova, B., Krishnaratne, S., & Mazzuca, A. (2020). Mental health problems among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS Medicine, 17(9), e1003297. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003297

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

This meta-analysis and conceptual study aimed to estimate the proportion of mental health disorders among FSWs in LMICs and explore relationships with shared risk variables. 

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

In meta-analyses, a correlation existed between having experienced violence and having depression. Other significant associations included having experienced violence and having recently engaged in suicidal behavior. This research showed that mental health issues are closely connected with standard risk variables and had a high prevalence rate among female farmworkers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The study results lend credence to the idea of overlapping vulnerabilities and bring into sharp focus the pressing need for treatments that are meant to promote the mental health and well-being of FSWs.

Article Review Template #9

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Burnes, T., Long, S., & Schept, R. (2012). A resilience-based lens of sex work: Implications for professional psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research And Practice, 43(2), 137-144. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0026205

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Through the utilization of a vitality lens and the subsequent application of that lens to three distinct research areas involving sex work, the study attempted to present an alternative way of understanding sex work.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

A resilience-based viewpoint may act as a gateway to thinking about how psychologists conceive theory and application with sex workers. Such a lens demands study and practice exploring the circumstances rather than the essence of sex work from a holistic viewpoint. One of the most conspicuous exclusions is the necessity for long-term research on sex worker resiliency. Studies examining sex workers’ psychological health risks and endurance across the life cycle is an area that is in serious need. Without a meta-analyses rigid body of study from a robustness lens, therapists may not be able to generate reliable conclusions and predictions and develop effective therapeutic options for this group.

Article Review Template #10

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Weiss, P. (2014). Mental Health and Sexual Identity in a Sample of Male Sex Workers in the Czech Republic. Medical Science Monitor, 20, 1682-1686. https://doi.org/10.12659/msm.891092

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The purpose of the study was to examine male sex work through the lens of a quantitative research design. In addition, the mental health issues experienced by male sex workers concerning their sexual identity or orientation are investigated in this study.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

According to the findings, being a homosexual and working in the sex industry as a male sex worker are not linked to any significant mental health issues for homosexuals. However, those who identified as heterosexual or bisexual were more likely to report psychological distress, and bisexuals displayed a markedly higher level of anxiety.

Article Review Template #1

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Kramer, Lisa. (2003). Emotional Experiences of Performing Prostitution. Journal of Trauma Practice. 2. 10.1300/J189v02n03_10.

2. What is the research problem being investigated?
Women go through a range of undesirable emotions while performing sex acts with clients including feelings of unhappiness, worth-lessness, resentment, anxiety, and shame. Far less regularly, emotional encounters of turning tricks were explained as including feelings of enjoyment and desirability

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

One of the challenging in assisting CSE victims is that many women in the business feel as though they are making a decision that offers them with chances, advantages, and financial stability that they may not have otherwise.

Article Review Template #2

1. APA reference of article being reviewed
.
Kanayama Y, Yamada H, Yoshikawa K, Aung KW. Mental Health Status of Female Sex Workers Exposed to Violence in Yangon, Myanmar. Asia Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2022;34(4):354-361. doi:10.1177/10105395221083821

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Female sex workers are predominantly vulnerable to mental disorders. One of the causes for this vulnerability is the potential for violence against sex worker

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.
Threats of violent behavior from partners exacerbate the mental health of sex workers, leading to serious symptoms of anxiety and depression.

Article Review Template #3

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

 

Elliott N (2020) Meeting female street sex workers’ physical and mental healthcare needs. Nursing Times [online]; 116: 1, 35-39.

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Street sex workers frequently have a history of childhood trauma, concerning sexual abuse and neglect. Street sex workers are frequently caught in a cycle of sexual violence and substance abuse. Nurses must realize what makes women into street sex work capable of meeting their health requirements

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Health professionals must be aware of the reasons why women end up in street sex work.
Examining the health challenges of female street sex workers in the framework of a history of childhood and adult trauma – as well as sexual abuse, neglect and social rejection, will result in caring and empathetic nursing.

Article Review Template #4

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Beattie, Tara S; Smilenova, Boryana; Krishnaratne, Shari; Mazzuca, April; (2020) Mental health problems among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLOS MEDICINE, 17 (9). e1003297-. ISSN 1549-1277 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003297

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Mental health problems are extremely widespread among female sex workers in low- and middle-income countries are greatly linked with common risk factors. Results establish the belief of intersecting vulnerabilities and emphasize the pressing demand for interventions intended to better the mental health and well-being of female sex workers.

2. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The mental health of female sex workers has appeared as a main public health matter in numerous low- and middle-income countries. Crucial risk factors consist of poverty, low education, violence, alcohol and drug use, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and shame and discrimination.

Article Review Template #5

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Armstrong, L. ‘I Can Lead the Life That I Want to Lead’: Social Harm, Human Needs and the Decriminalisation of Sex Work in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Sex Res Soc Policy 18, 941–951 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13178-021-00605-7

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Sex work is frequently understood to be a dangerous profession.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Social harm is a basis that can assist in illustrating socio-economic problems which impact routes into sex work for some individuals

Article Review Template #6

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

McCarthy, Bill, Mikael Jansson, and Cecilia Benoit. 2021. Job Attributes and Mental Health: A Comparative Study of Sex Work and Hairstyling. Social Sciences 10: 35. https://doi.org/10.3390/ socsci10020035

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Selling sex can be usefully examined as a form of service work equivalent to additional personal service jobs, especially those that involve emotional labor, body work, and associated activities

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The routine interaction between sex work and hairstyling or barbering.

Article Review Template #7

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Macioti et al., Sex Work and Mental Health. Policy Relevant Report. Access to Mental Health Services for People Who Sell Sex in Germany, Italy, Sweden, and UK, 2021

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

The issue of sex work and mental health is complex. Sex workers, like many other individuals, and in particular marginalised groups, may suffer from mental health issues.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The issue of sex work and mental health is complex. Sex workers, like many other individuals, and in particular marginalised groups, may suffer from mental health issues.

Article Review Template #8

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Puri, N., Shannon, K., Nguyen, P., & Goldenberg, S. M. (2017). Burden and correlates of mental health diagnoses among sex workers in an urban setting. BMC women’s health, 17(1), 133. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12905-017-0491-y

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Women involved in both street-level and off-street sex work face inconsistent health and social injustices compared to the overall population. While considerable research has concentrated on HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) amongst sex workers, there remains a gap in data concerning the wider health concerns confronted by this population, including mental health.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Additional examination that investigates mental health assessment, diagnosis, and treatment for these vulnerable subpopulations is necessary in order to create evidence-informed interventions.

Article Review Template #9

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Carla Treloar, Zahra Stardust, Elena Cama, Jules Kim, Rethinking the relationship between sex work, mental health and stigma: a qualitative study of sex workers in Australia, Social Science & Medicine, Volume 268, 2021, 113468, ISSN 0277-9536, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113468. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953620306870)

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Sex workers may encounter stigma equally associated to their profession as well as psychological health issues that they face.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

The risk of stigma is widespread and has mental health consequences for sex workers.

Article Review Template #10

1. APA reference of article being reviewed

Zehnder M, Mutschler J, Rössler W, Rufer M and Rüsch N (2019) Stigma as a Barrier to Mental Health Service Use Among Female Sex Workers in Switzerland. Front. Psychiatry 10:32. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00032

2. What is the research problem being investigated?

Many sex workers suffer from mental health problems, but do not seek help.

3. Describe the findings that you might cite in the future.

Interventions that aim to increase mental health service use among sex workers should take stigma variables into account.